There are two main types of mortgages: a conventional loan guaranteed by a private lender or banking institution, or a government-backed loan.
Most government-backed mortgages come in one of three forms:
- FHA loans, insured by the Federal Housing Administration, were established to make homebuying more affordable, especially for first-time buyers, by allowing down payments as low as 3.5% of the purchase price.
- VA loans are insured by the Department of Veterans Affairs and offer buyers low- or no down payment options and competitive mortgage rates. They’re available to current military service members and veterans only.
- USDA loans are backed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and are geared toward rural property buyers who meet income requirements.
All three programs follow the limits for conforming loans and have low down payment requirements. More on that later.
Conventional loans, on the other hand, are offered and backed by private entities such as banks, credit unions, private lenders or savings institutions. Borrowers need good credit to qualify. This is because the loans aren’t guaranteed by an outside source — so the possibility of borrower default poses a greater risk for lenders.
Conventional loans have terms of 10, 15, 20 or 30 years. They also require much larger down payments than government-backed loans. Borrowers are expected to put down at least 5%, but that amount can vary based on the lender and the borrower’s credit history.
If you don’t have a lot of cash saved up for a down payment but have solid credit and a stable income, a government-backed loan is likely the way to go.
If you don’t have a lot of cash saved up for a down payment but have solid credit and a stable income, a government-backed loan is likely the way to go. Keep in mind that if you choose a conventional or government-backed loan and you’re making less than a 20% down payment, you’ll have to pay for private mortgage insurance.
If you can afford to save up a large down payment and build your credit score while lowering your debt-to-income ratio, a conventional loan is a great choice that can eliminate some of the extra fees and higher interest rates that may come with a government-backed loan.